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Population Genetics and Diabetes:The Human Genome Project and Diabetes:"Diabetes has a genetic component, but not one that, on the molecular level, is obvious or well-defined. When talking about a complex disease like diabetes, researchers have to bring in ethnology and social issues. The study of diabetes can't be limited to the study of molecules - scientists must also investigate populations. One ethnic group that has been the focus of diabetes studies is the Native American Pima tribe of Arizona. One important type of genetic data is chromosome difference, including the number and shapes of chromosomes, and their banding pattern differences.Bands show evolutionary history on a large scale. These bands indicate how two chromosomes fused together, or how one broke, then moved around and picked up somewhere else. By studying fusions and breaks, researchers can "tease apart" some evolutionary events. These banding patterns are particularly useful for finding large scale differences between two genomes or among genomes.Often researchers use bands in studies focused on diseases; to answer the question: do the differences in a genes correlate with a disease?"
http://www.nmsu.edu/~molbio/diabetes/population.html

Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2):Lycos Health with WebMD:"This page attempts to answer some of the more common questions about type 2 diabetes and its genetics. As in most human disease, type¬ 2 diabetes has genetic components and environmental components. So, it's a matter of nature and nurture, not nature versus nurture. Type 2 diabetes also runs within larger "human families." For example, 34% of the natives on the Pacific island of Nauru have type 2 diabetes. In Arizona, 40% of the Pima Native Americans have it. By contrast, in American whites, the number is around 1% to 2%. The high frequencies for Nauruans and Pimas are new, and resulted from a change in their pattern of food intake. Until recently, food was scarce in these populations. Obesity and, therefore, type 2 diabetes were rare. When food became abundant, both abnormalities became common."
http://webmd.lycos.com/content/article/1667.50282

Type 1 diabetes has a genetic link, so it runs in families:National Electronic Library for Diabetes:"Scientists are trying to find out which genes play a part in causing Type 1 diabetes, but they haven't found them yet. We can tell that it is not only your genes that play a part. There must also be some environmental factors that trigger Type 1 diabetes. A lot of research is being carried out to find out what those triggers might be, but there is no conclusive answer yet. Some researchers think that Type 1 diabetes might be triggered by a virus or a reaction to cow's milk in infancy but more research needs to be carried out."
http://cebmh.warne.ox.ac.uk/diabetes/patient/diagnosis/genetics.html

Molecular Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus:Howard Hughes Medical Institute:"We recently identified the diabetes-susceptibility gene on chromosome 2, and it encodes a ubiquitously expressed member of the calpain-like cysteine protease family, calpain 10. This unexpected finding has identified a novel pathway leading to type 2 diabetes and a pathway that could affect insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production. Clinical studies in nondiabetic subjects suggest that calpain-10 is one of the factors affecting the action of insulin on muscle tissue and insulin secretion from the pancreatic b cell. Genetic variation in this gene is associated with a 1.5- to 3-fold increased risk of diabetes in Mexican Americans, in several different Northern European populations (British, Finnish [Botnia], German, and Czech), and in African Americans."
http://www.hhmi.org/research/investigators/bell.html

A genetically modified line of insulin-producing cells grown in the laboratory have been shown to function successfully when transplanted into mice:diabetic-lifestyle:"If an immediate relative (parent, sibling, offspring) has type 1 diabetes, your risk is 10 to 20 times the risk of the general population. Your risk can go from 1 in 100 to roughly 1 in 10 or possibly higher, depending on which family member has diabetes and when they developed it. If one child in a family has type 1 diabetes, their siblings have a 1 in 10 risk of developing it by age 50. The risk for a child of a parent with type 1 diabetes is lower if it is the mother who has the diabetes rather than the father. If it is the father, the risk is 1 in 10 ( 10 percent) . If it's the mother the risk is 1 in 24 ( 4 percent), and if the mother is over age 25, the risk drops to 1 in 100, the same for the general American population. If one of the parents developed type 1 diabetes before age 11, their child's risk is somewhat higher than the figures in #3 and somewhat lower, if the parents was diagnosed after age 11. About 1 in 7 people with type 1 diabetes has a condition known as type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. In addition to type 1 diabetes, these people have thyroid disease, malfunctioning adrenal glands, and sometimes other immune disorders. For those with this syndrome, the child's risk of having the syndrome, including type 1 diabetes, is 1 in 2 according to the American Diabetes Association...."
http://www.diabetic-lifestyle.com/articles/jul00_whats_1.htm

Considerable progress has been made in understanding the genetic causes of diabetes over the last 25 years.:diabetes.org.uk:"The first major discovery came in 1974 when the part of the DNA sequence (or 'gene region') relating to the production of a special molecule called 'HLA' (human leucocyte antigen) was identified. HLA is very significant in Type 1 diabetes because it plays an important part in the body's normal immune response - the process by which the body defends itself against invasion by foreign proteins, such as germs"
http://www.diabetes.org.uk/research/feature/7genetic.htm

Research on Genetics and Diabetes:csu.edu.au:"Type II, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, also shows a complex pattern of inheritance. Certain ethnic groups, such as Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, and Pima Indians have increased rates of type II diabetes, indicating a potential genetics basis for the disease. Current research is attempting to implicate particular genes or loci for the common form of this disease, the late onset variety that usually occur after age 40. None have been identified so far. Studies show that family history of type II diabetes is one of the strongest risk factors for getting the disease, but it seems to only matter for people with high fat, low fiber, low carbohydrate diets and a low exercise lifestyle."
http://www.csu.edu.au/learning/ncgr/gpi/odyssey/diabetes/dgenes.html

Hunting for human disease susceptibility genes: The affected sib-pair method:www.wehi.edu.au:"Finding diabetes susceptibility genes involves an "affected sib" approach -researchers test siblings (brothers or sisters) who have diabetes, looking for shared alleles at genetic markers dispersed along the chromosomes. The basic logic of the method is that if two sibs share the same disease, they tend to do so because they have inherited the same susceptibility genes. Thus, they will also tend to share genetic markers linked to these disease genes. As with many things in genetics, the concept is very simple, yet provides a base for extremely sophisticated mathematical development"
http://www.wehi.edu.au/research/genbio/gendiabetes.html

Clinical Genetic Studies of diabetes:University of Oxford:"For 10 years detailed studies of inheritance of diabetes have been undertaken in the Diabetes Research Laboratories (DRL). They have been successful, including the demonstration that mutations in a glucokinase enzyme can give rise to a particular form of diabetes called Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth (MODY). They have also confirmed that diabetes is a complex, polygenic disease and have shown that most of the commonly used approaches for finding consecutive genetic mutations are not appropriate. A new approach has been developed to obtain suitable families for the search for genes that cause diabetes."
http://www.drl.ox.ac.uk/genetics.html


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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on Wednesday, September 29, 2010


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