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A history of diabetes/ then and now:Diabetes Services Inc.:"Described and treated since ancient times, diabetes has certain characteristics that have long been recognized. Before the discovery of insulin, people found to have sugar in their urine under the age of 20 usually died in their youth, while those diagnosed when over the age of 40 could live for many years with this condition. Beginning in the mid 1920s, those who got diabetes when young (juvenile onset) were put on insulin, and those who got it when older (adult onset) often were not. However, the mechanisms that led to this difference in treatment were unknown. The only marker that differentiated the two types at that time was the presence in the urine of moderate or large levels of ketones when blood sugars were high. If significant ketones were present, the person could not make enough insulin, needed injected insulin to control the blood sugar, and was called insulin-dependent."
webmaster@diabetesnet.com
http://www.diabetesnet.com/diabetes_types/whatype.php

Diabestes, how many are affected?:Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002:"In the United States, about 16 million people (6 percent of the population) suffer from diabetes mellitus. Every year, about 800,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus kills about 193,000 U.S. residents each year, and it is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. In Canada, more than 2.2 million residents (7 percent of the population) have diabetes mellitus, and the disease contributes to more than 25,000 deaths a year. "
http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761576931

Understanding Diabestes:NIH Publication No. 01-3873 :"When we eat, the pancreas is supposed to automatically produce the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose."
http://diabetes.about.com/library/blNIHdiabetesoverview1.htm

What is diabetes-learning to live with the desease:LifeScan, Inc. 1996-2002 :"If you want to live a life without limits, even with diabetes, you will need to know a lot about diabetes and a lot about yourself. The foundation of basic diabetes care has not changed much in recent years, yet we learn more about diabetes every day.Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body does not make, or does not properly use, insulin. Insulin is the hormone that helps your body use the energy from sugar, starches and other foods. The result is that your body doesn't get the energy it needs, and unmetabolized sugar (glucose), builds up in your blood causing damage to the body and its systems.Diabetes can be a serious disease, but there are many ways to prevent and or control its complications. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors."
http://www.lifescan.com/care/index.html

Diabetes and overview of all aspects of the desease:OBGYN.net:"Say "diabetes" and most people conjure up images of insulin and syringes, a diet without sugar, and maybe sad memories of an aunt who went blind. Diabetes is actually a catchall term for a cluster of related disorders of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes, also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is distinct from the form that children and young adults get, called type 1 diabetes. (More about a third type of diabetes, called gestational diabetes, later). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin, and a person needs daily insulin injections to survive. With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin, but the body's tissues don't respond very well to it. This condition is called insulin resistance.Type 2 diabetes is 10 times more common than type 1. It usually strikes people who are over age 40, are overweight and sedentary, and have a family history of type 2 diabetes.If you think you or someone you know may have type 2 diabetes, speak to your doctor about being tested (see "Could You Be at Risk?" ). The expert panel that recently changed the diagnostic guidelines for diabetes recommends that everyone over age 45 be tested for diabetes every 3 years. It recommends that physicians test younger patients if they have other risk factors, such as being overweight, are members of a high-risk ethnic group (African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, or Asians), have a close relative with the disease, have high blood pressure or cholesterol, or had gestational diabetes. Don't let diabetes sneak up on you."
http://www.obgyn.net/femalepatient/default.asp?page=diabetes

People with diabetes can live long, happy lives:diabetes.org:"Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use sugar. Sugar is the basic fuel for the cells in the body, and insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When sugar builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood sugar levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Finding out you have diabetes is scary. But don't panic! Sure, diabetes is serious. But people with diabetes can live long, healthy, happy lives. You can too by taking good care of yourself."
customerservice@diabetes.org
http://www.diabetes.org/main/application/commercewf;JSESSIONID_WLCS_DEFAULT=PXqV1zr1Ff1t0NToLdbKQ4H2QWZzWcApQhLm05uTogocRfSeGYUA!-5964077944895969648!1064251618!7501!7502?origin=*.jsp&event=link(C)

Description of Type1 and Type2 Diabetes::"Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Someone with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin daily to live.The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. About 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. This form of diabetes usually develops in adults age 40 and older and is most common in adults over age 55. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Type 2 diabetes is often part of a metabolic syndrome that includes obesity, elevated blood pressure, and high levels of blood lipids. Unfortunately, as more children and adolescents become overweight, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in young people"
1 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3560
Phone: 1-800-860-8747 or (301) 654-3327
ndic@info.niddk.nih.gov
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/diabetes/pubs/dmover/dmover.htm

Diabetes..what can you do to stay healthy:Joslin Diabetes Center:"There are certain things that everyone who has diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, needs to do to be healthy. You need to have a meal (eating) plan. You need to pay attention to how much you exercise, because exercise can help your body use insulin better to convert glucose into energy for cells. Everyone with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, also need to take insulin injections. Some people with type 2 diabetes take pills called "oral agents" which help their bodies produce more insulin and/or use the insulin it is producing better. Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their disease with weight loss, diet and exercise alone and don't need any medication. Everyone who has diabetes should be seen at least once every six months by a diabetes specialist (an endocrinologist). You should also be seen periodically by other members of a diabetes treatment team, including a diabetes nurse educator, and a diabetes dietitian educator who helps you develop a meal plan that works best for you."
Joslin Diabetes Center
One Joslin Place
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 732-2400
Contact Joslin Diabetes Center
http://www.joslin.harvard.edu/education/library/wfewfact.shtml#prevent

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Control of type 1 and type 2 diabetes:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention :"In order to survive, people with type 1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injections or a pump. Many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose by following a careful diet and exercise program, losing excess weight, and taking oral medication. Many people with diabetes also need to take medications to control their cholesterol and blood pressure. Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, about 11% take both insulin and oral medications, 22% take insulin only, 49% take oral medications only, and 17% do not take either insulin or oral medications."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Phone: Toll free 1-877-CDC-DIAB (877-232-3422)
Fax: 301-562-1050
CDC Division of Diabetes Translation
P. O. Box 8728
Silver Spring MD 20910
diabetes@cdc.gov
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/general.htm#what

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Hypo and Hyperglycemia:Brendan Hannemann, Kidslearnaboutdiabetes.org:"Hypoglycemia is when you have low blood sugar - too little sugar (glucose) circulating in your blood and getting to your cells, or too much insulin. Symptoms for this are shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger, weakness, and sweating. The treatment for this is to get sugar into your system fast, by drinking a glass of orange juice or eating some candy or glucose tablets. Hyperglycemia is when you have high blood sugar - too much glucose circulating in your blood, or not enough insulin. The symptoms are extreme thirst, dry skin, blurry vision, frequent peeing and feeling tired. The treatment for this is to drink plenty of water or other sugar-free fluids, and be careful about exercising. Test your urine for ketones using a ketone-testing kit. Complications caused by diabetes that can happen over several years are very serious. They include problems with your kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, gums, and anywhere your body has small blood vessels."
hannembb@jmu.edu
http://www.kidslearnaboutdiabetes.org/dframes.html

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Complications of Diabetes:
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Diagnosing diabetes:
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Dialysis and diabetes:
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Diet for the diabetic:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/diet/

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Dyslipidemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/dyslipidemia/

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Educator (Diabetic Educator):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/educator/

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Eye (Diabetic Eye Disease):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/eyedisease/

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Feline diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/feline/

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Gestational diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/gestation/

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Glaucoma:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/glaucoma/

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Hyperglycemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/hyperglycemia/

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Hypoglycemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/hypoglycemia/

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IGT (Impaired glucose tolerance):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/IGT/

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Insipidus (diabetes insipidus):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/insipidus/

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Ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/keto/

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Kidney Transplant:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/transplant/

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Kids and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/kids/

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Management of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/management/

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Men and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/men/

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Nephropathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/nephropathy/

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Neuropathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/neuropathy/

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Prevention of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/prevention/

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Research:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/research/

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Retinopathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/retinopathy/

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Symptoms of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/symptoms/

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Traveling and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/traveling/

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Treatment of Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/diabetestx/

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Type 1 diabetes/ IDDM:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/type1/

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Type 2 diabetes/ NIDDM:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/type2/

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Ulcer (diabetic ulcer):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/ulcer/

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Women and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/women/

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Diabetic Medications:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/medications/

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on Wednesday, September 29, 2010


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