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Type 2 Diabetes

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Diabetes Basics - Type 2 Diabetes:lifeclinic:"Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease that can cause significant, severe complications such as heart disease, kidney disease, blindness and loss of limbs through amputation. Treatment differs at various stages of the condition. In its early stages, many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose levels by losing weight, eating properly and exercising. Many may subsequently need oral medication, and some people with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin shots to control their diabetes and avoid the disease's serious complications."
http://www.lifeclinic.com/focus/diabetes/type2.asp

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?:Diabetic Gourmet:"Type 2 diabetes is more common in older people, especially older women who are overweight, and occurs more often among African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, diabetes rates are about 60 percent higher in African Americans and 110 to 120 percent higher in Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans.American Indians have the highest rates of diabetes in the world. Among Pima Indians living in the United States, for example, half of all adults have type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is likely to increase because older people, Hispanics, and other minority groups make up the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population."
http://www.diabeticgourmet.com/health/type2/

What Is Diabetes Type 2?:helioshealth.com:"Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled without insulin injections. It has been called adult-onset diabetes because diagnosis is usually made in people who are middle-aged or older. Over eight million people in the United States have Type 2 diabetes. It is more common in the Hispanic and African-American populations. Native Americans are also especially at risk for Type 2 diabetes. In certain tribes, almost half of adult members have Type 2 diabetes."
http://www.helioshealth.com/diabetes_full/diabetes_03.html

What Increases Your Risk:Healthwise, Incorporated:"Age. The risk for developing type 2 diabetes increases with age. People who are age 45 and older are at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes than younger people. However, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children is increasing. Usually children who develop type 2 diabetes have a family history of the disease, are overweight, eat a high-fat diet, and are physically inactive.2 In addition, children whose mothers developed diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Impaired glucose metabolism. People who have blood sugar levels above the normal level but below the level for diagnosis of diabetes have impaired glucose metabolism and are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the future."
http://www.behavemed.com/kbase/topic/major/hw135189/riskfact.htm

The Benefits and Risks of Controlling Blood Glucose Levels in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:American Academy of Family Physicians:"About 90-95% of persons with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (Harris, 1995), which is usually diagnosed in adulthood (mean age = 51 years) and is thought to result from a combination of insulin resistance and relative beta-cell failure. Type 1 diabetes usually has its onset during childhood and is characterized by low or absent levels of insulin, autoimmune response leading to beta-cell antibodies as well as antibodies to other components of the islets, and genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition is even more evident in type 2 diabetes. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the pathogenesis of microvascular (and possibly macrovascular) complications appears to be related to chronic elevations in blood glucose concentrations."
http://www.aafp.org/clinical/diabetes/02.html

MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES:Therapeutics Initiative:"As yet there is no conclusive evidence that improved glucose control with oral agents leads to a decrease in the complications of type 2 diabetes. There is some evidence that improved glucose control delays the onset of complications in type 2 diabetes. In a cohort study of 114 patients followed for 5 years, the incidence of progression of retinopathy increased linearly as a function of the HbA1C level: 2% in those with HbA1C less than 0.070 and 62% in those with HbA1C greater than 0.090. In a randomised secondary prevention intervention trial of diabetic patients (majority type 2 diabetes) who had suffered an MI, those who had intensive insulin treatment had an absolute reduction of mortality of 11% (44% vs 33%) compared to the regular therapy group after 3.4 years of follow-up."
http://www.ti.ubc.ca/pages/letter23.htm

Management of hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus:American Family Physician:"Patients with type 2 diabetes who undergo stress of any kind can have difficulty maintaining glycemic control. Insulin requirements increase with pain, trauma, surgery, sepsis, bums, hypoxia, cardiovascular disease and mental stress.[17-19] If sufficient treatment is not given, severe hyperglycemia with or without ketosis can occur. Hyperglycemia can have a variety of adverse consequences, including increased neurologic ischemia,[11] delayed wound healing[20] and higher infection rates."
http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m3225/n5_v57/20460461/p1/article.jhtml

Treatment of Diabetic Complications:American Family Physician:"Patients with diabetes have an increased prevalence of factors known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) -- dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity. Individuals who will develop type 2 diabetes may have higher plasma triglyceride and lower plasma HDL cholesterol levels than individuals who will not develop type 2 diabetes. CVD takes a high toll in diabetic patients. Atherosclerotic disease, macrovascular disease and its complications account for more than half of the deaths in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients should be assessed periodically for these conditions and for symptoms suggestive of heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or increases in blood pressure or lipid levels."
http://www.aafp.org/afp/monograph/200001/

Diet, Exercise Delay Type 2 Diabetes:food and drug administration:"Lifestyle intervention worked as well in men and women and in all the ethnic groups, according to the study's chairman, David Nathan, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. It also worked well in people age 60 and older, reducing the development of diabetes in this group by 71 percent. Glucophage was effective in men and women and in all the ethnic groups, but was relatively ineffective in the older volunteers and in those who were less overweight. DPP volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: intensive lifestyle changes with the aim of reducing weight by 7 percent through a low-fat diet and exercising for 150 minutes a week; treatment with Glucophage (850 mg twice a day), a drug approved in 1995 to treat Type 2 diabetes; or standard group taking placebo pills in place of Glucophage."
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2001/501_diab.html

Type 2 Diabetes: A Threat to Indigenous People Everywhere:ahsc.arizona.edu:"The symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are subtle and often are not apparent to the patient. As a result, approximately half of the population with Type 2 diabetes are unaware that they have the disease, and by the time the disease is diagnosed, secondary complications may have occurred. Some of the secondary complications include eye problems (glaucoma and retinopathy), high blood pressure, kidney failure, coronary heart disease, and loss of sensation in hands and feet. Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes include a family history of diabetes, gestational diabetic birth, being overweight, being sedentary, and eating a diet high in saturated fats."
http://www.ahsc.arizona.edu/nartc/articles/young98.htm



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A-Z List:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/A-Z_list/

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Amputation:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/amputation/

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Associations:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/associations/

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Atherosclerosis:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/atherosclerosis/

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Backpacking and Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/backpacking/

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Camps For Diabetic Kids, Children With Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/camps/

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Canine Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/canine/

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Cataracts:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/cataracts/

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Cause of Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/cause/

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Charcot Foot:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/charcot/

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Classification of Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/class/

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Clinical Trials:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/trials/

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Complications of Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/complications/

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Diagnosing diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/diagnosis/

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Dialysis and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/dialysis/

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Diet for the diabetic:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/diet/

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Dyslipidemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/dyslipidemia/

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Educator (Diabetic Educator):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/educator/

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Eye (Diabetic Eye Disease):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/eyedisease/

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Feline diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/feline/

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Gestational diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/gestation/

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Glaucoma:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/glaucoma/

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Hyperglycemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/hyperglycemia/

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Hypoglycemia:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/hypoglycemia/

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IGT (Impaired glucose tolerance):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/IGT/

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Insipidus (diabetes insipidus):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/insipidus/

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Ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/keto/

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Kidney Transplant:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/transplant/

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Kids and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/kids/

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Management of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/management/

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Men and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/men/

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Nephropathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/nephropathy/

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Neuropathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/neuropathy/

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Prevention of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/prevention/

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Research:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/research/

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Retinopathy:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/retinopathy/

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Symptoms of diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/symptoms/

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Traveling and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/traveling/

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Treatment of Diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/diabetestx/

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Type 1 diabetes/ IDDM:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/type1/

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Type 2 diabetes/ NIDDM:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/type2/

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Ulcer (diabetic ulcer):
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/ulcer/

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Women and diabetes:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/women/

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Diabetic Medications:
http://www.nursingdiabetics.com/medications/

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on Wednesday, September 29, 2010


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